Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthritis, is the most common arthritis in the world. Its manifestations and progression vary from person to person. It is more common in large weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. The three major symptoms are joint pain, stiffness and Movement is restricted, and patients may also experience muscle weakness and balance problems.
In particular, the impact of knee arthritis is similar to that of cardiovascular disease, and is greater than the impact of any other disease on patients.
In empirical medicine, which health ingredients are helpful for osteoarthritis, please refer to the article analysis for details.
What is osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It is a degenerative joint disease characterized by damage to the structure and function of articular cartilage (narrowing and thickening of the joint space, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone Cyst), the reason is that the anabolic and catabolic processes in the cartilage tissue are not balanced, which leads to its degradation.
Osteoarthritis affects approximately 5% to 15% of the world’s population and often causes moderate to severe disability, making it the 11th most debilitating disease in the world.
It is estimated that 80% of people over 65 have radiological evidence of osteoarthritis, although only 60% of this group of people have symptoms.
Typical osteoarthritis often involves the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, the first carpal-metacarpal joint, the hip joint, the knee joint, the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the lower cervical and lumbar joints. It can be single or multiple joints.
Classification of osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis is mainly divided into two categories: primary osteoarthritis and secondary osteoarthritis.
Primary osteoarthritis is the most common collection of the disease. The diagnostic criteria is that there is no induced trauma or disease factors, but it is related to the above risk factors.
The occurrence of secondary osteoarthritis is related to pre-existing joint abnormalities. Related conditions include trauma or injury, congenital joint disease, inflammatory arthritis, avascular necrosis, infectious arthritis, Paget's disease, osteonecrosis, osteochondritis dissecans, hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, hemoglobinopathy, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) Or Marfan syndrome.
What are the health ingredients that are helpful for osteoarthritis?
Glucosamine is an amino sugar (also known as amino glucose). It is an important molecule in the biochemical pathway of glycosylated protein and lipid synthesis. It is abundantly present in articular cartilage, intervertebral discs and synovial fluid, as well as extracellular The main components of matrix macromolecules such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), glycolipids and acetylated glycoproteins.
Glucosamine is a special non-vitamin, non-mineral supplement, often combined with chondroitin and methylsulfonylmethane for osteoarthritis and non-specific joint pain.
Although the effectiveness of these supplements is controversial, they are still one of the most commonly used ingredients, and their use rate is comparable to the anti-inflammatory and painkiller: acetaminophen.
A meta-analysis of the literature (including 18 randomized placebo-controlled trials related to osteoarthritis) pointed out that compared with placebo, oral glucosamine is helpful for pain relief (VAS pain score/pain visual analogy score) And JKOM/Japan Knee Osteoarthritis Scale), but the effect is limited.
Another literature meta-analysis (including 17 randomized placebo-controlled trials related to osteoarthritis, 2212 participants) pointed out that oral glucosamine may have a small to moderate effect in reducing pain related to osteoarthritis. But it has little effect on the narrowing of the joint space.
In addition, several smaller doses a day have a greater analgesic effect than a large dose (1500 mg) once a day, which indicates that the dosing schedule is important.
Conclusion: As of now, for osteoarthritis, there is insufficient evidence to support that oral glucosamine can delay the natural course of continuous joint degeneration, but it may be slightly helpful for pain relief.
Turmeric has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine in Asian countries for thousands of years. It is a Chinese herbal medicine for liver disease, rheumatoid, diabetes, atherosclerosis, infectious diseases and cancer.
Among them, the most effective ingredient, Curcumin, is a polyphenolic compound extracted from the rhizome of turmeric. It is characterized by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti-arthritis, and Neuroprotective activity.
Curcumin has low bioavailability and poor water solubility. Therefore, in order to improve the utilization of curcumin, various mechanisms have been developed to enhance the absorption rate, such as emulsion, encapsulation, and nanoparticle types.
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis (including 7 randomized controlled trials, with a total of 797 participants with primary knee osteoarthritis) pointed out that compared with placebo, taking curcumin compounds ( The daily dose ranges from 180 mg to 2 grams, and the intervention time is 4 to 16 weeks.) It can significantly reduce knee pain and improve the quality of life of patients.
In addition, compared to the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, curcumin has a lower effect on improving pain relief, knee stiffness and physical function, but it can significantly reduce the frequency of rescue drugs.
Conclusion: For primary knee osteoarthritis, oral curcumin may be helpful for pain and quality of life improvement, but due to the small number of samples and heterogeneity, more studies are still needed to support it.
3. Undenatured type 2 collagen peptide
Collagen is mainly found in skin, hair, nails, muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. It mainly provides tissue tension and strength, and has the effect of promoting wound healing and tissue repair.
There are currently more than 29 types of collagen in the human body, 90% of which belong to the first to fifth types. The most common type of articular cartilage is Type II Collagen.
Undenatured Collagen Type II (UC-II) is a new generation of clinically proven patented ingredients. The difference from hydrolysed collagen (hydrolysed) is that UC-II is made at low temperature. , Without enzyme decomposition, it maintains the triple helix structure of collagen and retains the most biological activity.
The special feature of UC-II is that it can act on Peyer's patches in the intestines, and then train immune cells to recognize their structures. It has an immunomodulatory effect (also known as oral tolerization), thereby preventing T cells The attack on the type II collagen structural protein in cartilage reduces the inflammation of articular cartilage and promotes joint health.
A double-blind controlled study (180 days, 191 patients with moderate to severe osteoarthritis) found that compared with placebo or glucosamine + chondroitin, taking non-denatured type 2 collagen (UC-II) Significantly reduce the osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), including pain, stiffness and body function.
Another single-blind controlled study (3 months for 39 patients with osteoarthritis) pointed out that the additional use of Native Type II Collagen (referring to non-denatured type II collagen) in the course of conventional anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen) can show better Significant improvement effects, such as joint pain, physical function and quality of life (compared to the baseline).
However, the biomarkers of joint degeneration in urine have been significantly improved, and its effect remains to be further confirmed.
Conclusion: The use of non-denatured type 2 collagen may have a positive effect on the improvement of osteoarthritis, but it is limited by the small number of samples, and more large-scale trials are still needed to support it.
But on the whole, type II collagen has advantages and effects in improving osteoarthritis, and it has increasingly become a mainstream product in the market.
The health of joints is related to whether we can move freely and unrestricted, but don’t think that degenerative arthritis can only be obtained by the elderly, because patients have been getting younger, obesity, occupational injuries, infections, and genetics will increase the risk of attack.
Therefore, don’t wait until problems arise. You must pay attention to maintenance since you are young. Generally speaking, as long as you avoid overweight, develop exercise habits, strengthen the muscles of your legs, and take in the correct nutrients, you can reduce the chance of joint degeneration. , So you can walk like flying.
The best-selling type II collagen peptides under the Chiti brand, small molecules are easy to absorb, the effect is remarkable, and it is well received. It is a health food that is very worthy of being used as a protective supplement.